Goodspeed's History of Benton County, pp. 81-95

War Record

A company of soldiers was raised in Benton County, by Capt. Henry L. Smith, for the Mexican War. They went as far as Fort Smith, but the quota having been filled they were not accepted. A portion of them however, then joined the company of Capt. Wells, a company that was accepted but not yet full. In this company they went forward, and served in that war. On the approach of the late Civil War, when the question of "secession" was being agitated, the people of Benton County, in general, were opposed to that measure, and did not wish to sever their connection with the Federal Union. They were, however, almost unanimously in favor of the Southern cause, and when it became evident that nothing but war would suffice to settle the difficulties between the opposing sections of the country, they cast their lot with their friends of the South, and went into the conflict with a determination to fight to the end of the struggle to secure what they believed to be their rights, and how well they did this the sequel will show.

In the spring of 1861, after the "dogs of war" had been let loose, Capt. T. T. Hays raised an infantry company on Pea Ridge, in Benton County, and Capt. Dan. McKissick raised a cavalry company, mostly from the southern part of the county, both of which companies joined the State service, and remained therein until a short time after the battle of Wilson's Creek was fought, and were then disbanded. These companies did not happen to be engaged in any fights. Nearly all the men composing these companies afterward joined other companies, and went into the Confederate service.

The Fifteenth Regiment Arkansas Infantry. -- The first company that went into the Confederate army from Benton County was Company A, of the Fifteenth Arkansas Regiment. It was raised in midsummer of 1861, by Capt. J. H. Hobbs. Soon thereafter Companies F and G of the same regiment were raised in Benton County. The former went out under Capt. William Thompson, and the latter under Capt. J. M. Richards. The regiment was organized in a camp near Cross Hollows, in this county, in the fall of 1861, served to the close of the war, and surrendered at Marshall, Tex., in May, 1865. Its first colonel was D. McRea, and afterward Capt. Hobbs, of Campany A, became the colonel, and he finally resigned on account of ill health. Among the important battles in which this regiment was engaged were Pea Ridge, in Benton County, Ark.; Iuka Springs and Corinth, in Mississippi; Fort Gibson, Baker's Creek, defense of Vicksburg during the siege thereof, Prairie De Ann, Mark's Mill and Jenkins' Ferry. After the surrender at Vicksburg the regiment went into a parole camp at Washington, Ark., where it remained until after it was exchanged. Its loss during the war was somewhat heavy.

The Thirty-fourth Regiment Arkansas Infantry. -- Company F, of this regiment, was raised in Benton County, in July, 1862, and went out under Capt. C. L. Pickins. The regiment was organized at Mount Comfort, in Washington County. The more important battles in which it was engaged were Prairie Grove, Helena and Jenkins' Ferry. It also surrendered at Marshall, Tex., in May, 1865. Company F, of Col. King's Arkansas Regiment, was raised in Benton County, and went out under Capt. John Miser, of Pea Ridge. This regiment was organized at Mulberry, in Franklin County, was brigaded with the Thirty-fourth Arkansas, and participated in the same battles and surrendered at the same time and place.

Capt. Tom Jefferson raised a company of cavalry in Benton County, for Col. Carl's regiment of Arkansas cavalry. This regiment served through the war, mostly in Missouri and Arkansas. Capt. Hugh Tinnin, of Maysville, and Capt. W. H. Hendren, each raised a company in the western part of Benton County, both of which served during the war in the Indian Territory. Capt. James Ingram raised a company of cavalry in the eastern part of Benton County, and it served in Northwestern Arkansas until October, 1863, when it went south, dismounted, joined and became a part of the Thirty-fourth Arkansas Infantry. Capt. "Bill Buck" Brown raised a company of cavalry in the sourthern part of Benton County, which served in Northwestern Arkansas during the continuance of the war. The captain was killed in a skirmish in the winter of 1864-65. Capt. James Cooper also raised an independent company of cavalry, which served in Northwestern Arkansas.

This gives eleven  companies which were raised in Benton County for the Confederate army, all of which averaged 100 men each thus making 1,100 men that served in the Confederate army from this county, besides several hundred who went into the service as recruits. No Federal troops were organized in this county for actual service in the war. A few months before the close of the war two or three companies of militia were organized, under the provision of the Federal Government, for the purpose of protecting the citizens from the depredations of the thieving and marauding parties not belonging to either army that were prowling around through the country plundering, murdering and robbing the citizens.

Skirmish on Dunagin's Farm. -- In February, 1862, when Gen. Price retreated from Missouri to join McCulloch in Arkansas, he was pursued through Benton County by the Federal forces under Gen. Curtis. His rear guard, under command of Gen. James S. Rains, was annoyed considerably by the Federal advance, and to get rid of this Rains halted on the farm of Rev. J. Dunagin, at or near the present station of Avoca, on the St. L. & S. F. Railroad, and planted a battery in a seemingly unprotected position, at the same time having it well protected by troops concealed along the side of the approach to it. Not discovering the support to this battery the Federal advance (cavalry) charged it, and received the cross fire of the concealed troops of the enemy. Twenty Federal soldiers and sixty horses, and two or three Confederate soldiers, were killed at once. This, of course, repulsed the Federal advance, and checked their pursuit. This was the first fight and the first reception of Federal troops in Benton County, and on this occasion the residence of Rev. J. Dunagin was set on fire and burned by the Federals, it being the first house burned in Benton in the war period. This house stood one-half mile east of the present village of Avoca. It was probably the 18th day of February, 1862, when this skirmish took place. The facts concerning it were furnished the compiler by Rev. Dunagin, who is well known to the people of Benton County.

Battle of Pea Ridge. -- This great battle, having been fought in Benton County, deserves a prominent place in its history. On the 18th day of February, 1862, the Federal army, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Samuel B. Curtis, crossed the State line from Missouri and went into camp on Sugar Creek, near Brightwater, in Benton County, Ark. "The Third and Fourth Divisions advanced from this position twelve miles farther south to Cross Hollows, where also the headquarters of Gen. Curtis were established, and the First and Second to Bentonville, twelve miles to the southwest, while a strong cavalry force, under Gen. Asboth, went to Osage Springs. On the 23d Gen Asboth made a dash into Fayetteville, twenty miles in advance, found the city evacuated, and planted the Union flag on the court-house." On March 1, Col. Jef. C. Davis' division withdrew from Cross Hollows and he took his position immediately behind Little Sugar Creek, covering the Fayettville [sic] and Springfield road, and fortified his position in anticipation of an attack from the south. On the 2d of March the First and Second Divisions, under Gen. Sigel, moved to McKissick's farm, four and a half miles west of Bentonville. Col. Schaefer, with the Second Missouri Infantry and a detachment of cavalry, was sent to Osage Mills, six miles south by a little east of McKissick's farm, as a post of observation toward Elm Springs, and for the purpose of running the mill to grind flour for the troops.

Another detachment of cavalry was sent to Osage Springs, five miles southeast of Bentonville, to hold connection with the division at Cross Hollows. On the 5th a detachment under Maj. Conrad was sent from McKissick's farm to Maysville, on the State line, twenty-one miles west of Bentonville; and another detachment under Maj. Mezaros went to Pineville, twenty-five miles northwest, while a detachment under Col. Vandever had been sent to Huntsville, in Madison County. Meanwhile the Confederate army, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Earl Van Dorn, concentrated in the Boston Mountains south of Fayetteville, and on the 3rd it was on the march to Fayetteville and Elm Springs, its advance arriving at the latter place on the evening of the 5th. On this march Price's troops in the lead were followed by McCulloch's division, while Gen. Pike with a brigade of Indian troops brought up the rear. The Federal officers did not learn of this movement until the 5th, when the Confederates were only a day's march from Sigel's position of McKissick's farm. It was the intention of the Confederate commander to move early on the 6th, and if possible cut off and capture Sigel's two divisions before they could prepare for defense or effect their retreat. Sigel, however, was advised of the advance of the enemy in time to prevent this disaster. Col. Schaefer's outposts were attacked on the evening of the 5th, and during that night he fell back, under instructions from Gen Sigel, to Bentonville. "At 2 o'clock A.M. of the 6th Gen Asboth's division left McKissick's farm with the whole train, followed by the division of Osterhaus. They passed through Bentonville from 4 to 8 o'clock A.M., and arrived at the camp behind Sugar Creek at 2 P.M., where the Union army was to concentrate."

For the purpose of defending the main column on its retreat, and to make observations regarding the Confederates' advance, Gen Sigel remained at Bentonville, with about 600 men and a battery of six pieces, after all the troops had left the place. At 10 A.M. he discovered that the Confederates were forming a battle line about a mile south of the village. With all possible haste and caution he then set out with his rear guard to follow his main army. The Confederate troops quickly followed, and skirmished with his command until they gained a point on Sugar Creek, about seven miles northeast of Bentonville. Here Sigel went up the creek toward Brightwater, where he joined the main army under Curtis. Van Dorn, the Confederate commander, left his wagon train at the crossing of Sugar Creek, and posted Green's division there to protect it, and to prevent the Federals from retreating down the valley in case of their defeat. He then advanced his army on the Bentonville and Keetsville road, passing the right of the Federal army as it was then in position facing southward, and passing north of Big Mountain, until, with Price's command, he reached the Fayetteville and Springfield road at a point north of the Elkhorn Tavern, and in the rear of the Federal army. He expected to reach this point before daylight on the morning of the 7th, but, on account of obstructions placed in the road by Col. Dodge's Iowa regiment, he did not reach it until nearly 10 A.M. of that day. During the night, while passing along the north side of Big Mountain, taking position immediately west and south thereof, with his lines facing south and southwestwardly. During the night of the 6th the Federal army rested in line of battle, facing southward from behind Sugar Creek. Gen. Asboth's division held the extreme right, Col. Osterhaus was on his left, Col. Davis next, and Col. Carr, with his division on the extreme left. The extreme right was so retired as to face southwest. Curtis expected to be attacked from the south, and had made preparations accordingly, but early on the morning of the 7th he learned that his enemy was in his rear instead of the front; and, after consultation with his division commanders at Pratt's store, he faced about and directed Col. Carr to take position at Elkhorn Tavern, while Col. Bussey was directed, with the cavalry of the different commands (except the Third Illinois) and with three pieces of Elbert's battery, to move by Leetown against the enemy supposed to be advancing in that direction. A brigade of infantry and other battery from Sigel's command were sent to support the cavalry, and Col. Osterhaus was also directed to accompany Col. Bussey for the purpose of taking control of the movement. Davis' division then moved to the support of Osterhaus on the left to contend with the Confederate forces under McCulloch, while Asboth moved to the support and assistance of Carr's division on the right to contend with Price's command. The lines of the latter faced south, southwest and west, forming a sort of semi-circle, the left of which overlapped the right of the Federal lines.

As the lines of the respective armies were formed on the morning of the 7th, before the engagement began, Price's command of the Confederate army, under the immediate control of the commanding general, Van Dorn, lay east of Big Mountain, while McCulloch's forces lay west and southwest thereof, and thus all immediate communication between the two portions of the Confederate army was cut off. The Federal army was also divided, as before stated, in order to contend with the divided forces of the Confederates, but Gen. Curtis established his headquarters near Pratt's store, and kept up communication between the two portions of his army. When the battle opened on the morning of the 7th the Federal cavalry sent out from Sigel's command to meet McCulloch's advance was repulsed, and in turn the Confederates were checked in their onslaught by the command of Osterhaus. "At this point," says Gen. Sigel, "the speedy arrival of Col. Jeff. C. Davis' division on the right of Osterhaus, and its energetic advance, turned a very critical moment into a decisive victory of our arms. McCulloch and McIntosh fell while leading their troops in a furious attack against Osterhaus and Davis. Hebert and a number of his officers and men were captured by the pickets of the Thirty-sixth Illinois (cavalry), under Capt. Smith, and of the Forty-fourth Illinois Infantry, under Capt. Russell. Thus the whole of McCulloch's column, deprived of its leaders and without unity of command, was thrown into confusion and beaten back. Though a great advantage was gained on our side by the death and capture of those leaders the principal cause of our success was rather the quick rallying and excellent maneuvering of Osterhaus' and Davis' forces, as well as the coolness and bravery of their infantry, supported by Welfley's Hoffman's and Davidson's batteries. Osterhaus changed his front twice, under the fire of the enemy, to meet the dangerous flank attack and pressure of Hebert's Louisiana and Arkansas infantry, while the brigades of Davis, by striking the left of McCulloch's advancing column, threw it into disorder and forced it to retreat."

During the day the left wing of the Confederate army, under Van Dorn and Price, was eminently successful, as conceded by Gen. Sigel, who says: "In spite of the heroic resistance of the two brigades of Dodge and Vandever, and the re-enforcements sent them during the afternoon, they were forced back from position to position until Elkhorn Tavern was taken by the enemy, and our crippled forces, almost without ammunition, their artillery reduced by losses of guns, men and horses, their infantry greatly reduced, had to seek a last shelter in the woods and behind the fences, separated from the enemy's position by open fields, but not farther than a mile from our trains. They formed a contracted and curved line, determined to resist, not disheartened, but awaiting with some apprehension another attack. Fortunately the enemy did not follow up his success, and night fell in, closing this terrible conflict."

Of the Indian forces in McCulloch's column Col. Drew with his Cherokee regiment retreated to the southwest toward Bentonville, while Col. Greer, who succeeded McCulloch in command of the wing, moved with the remainder of the force during the night and joined Van Dorn, taking position on his extreme left the next morning. Col. Stand Waitie, with his Cherokee regiment, retreated to Bentonville during the second day of the fight. It is said that the hardest fighting in this battle took place between the forces of the Confederate left and the Federal right. when the battle opened the position held by the Federal right was stoutly maintained, and it was with a fearful struggle and heavy loss to both sides that they were dislodged and compelled to fall back, so that when the day's engagement closed the left of the right wing rested near the foot of Big Mountain and the right a short distance east of Pratt's store. This was confronted by the advanced line of the Confederates, who had captured Elkhorn Tavern, and formed their line west and south thereof, with their right resting at the foot of the mountain. The withdrawal of the Confederates' right wing from in front of the Federal left enabled Sigel to move eastward, with the division of Osterhaus along the south side of the mountain, to the relief and support of the right wing, which had been sorely pressed during the day. During the night of the 7th the division of Col. Davis was called in from Leetown, and this brought  the Federal army all together.

On the first day of the fight, while Van Dorn and Price were so vigourously pushing their columns forward with marked success, they hoped that the right wing under McCulloch was equally successful. But learning of his death, and that of McIntosh, the repulse of the right wing, and the state of affairs in general, Van Dorn concluded to retreat, and during the night Green's division, that had been left back on Sugar Creek to guard the wagon train, was ordered to fall back and secure the train from exposure to capture. Early on the morning of the 8th the Federal line was re-formed, with the division of Asboth on the left (near the mountain), Osterhaus' division in the center, and that of Davis on the right, with Carr's division in a retired position to the rear of Davis' right, and immediately in front of Pratt's store, the whole facing generally to the east, and confronting the Confederate line. The latter, as formed on the morning of the 8th (Saturday), was as follows: Little on the right, next to the mountain and directly in front of the Federal forces under Asboth and Osterhaus; Frost next on the left; Greer and Hill next, with Gates' cavalry on the extreme left. Gen. Curtis opened the battle on the second morning with cannonading, and having selected a good position he moved on to the Confederate forces, who seemed to fight more on the defensive than on the offensive, as they had the day before. "However, opposite the left of the Federal line, near Elkhorn Tavern, Van Dorn made a determined effort to hold the spur of hills, the top of which was crowned and protected by rocks and bowlders [sic]. Some of Price's infantry had already taken possession of it, and a battery was being placed in position, when Hoffmann's and Elbert's batteries were ordered to direct their fire against them, chiefly with solid shot. Not more than fifteen minutes elapsed before the enemy evacuated this last stronghold." [Sigel.] About the same time two Federal regiments advanced from the center and right into the woods, engaged the Confederate infantry and drove it back, and another Federal regiment (the Twelfth Missouri) captured the Dallas battery. At this juncture the Federal right advanced on to the Confederate left, the latter yielding, and the general retreat of the Confederate army now began. It fell back over the same ground it had gained the day before, and the main army, which remained in order, retreated to the southeast on the Van Winkle road. Some detachments cut off from the main army retreated in other directions, being followed by Federal forces toward Keetsville, in Missouri, and to a point beyond Bentonville, in Arkansas. It is claimed by those who served in the Confederate army that Van Dorn's only object in maintaining the fight on the second day was to enable his trains and forces to make a successful retreat. The retreat took place before noon. The Federal army remained on the field, having won the victory which the Confederates felt confident of winning during the first day of the fight. The plan of attack adopted by Gen. Van Dorn was a wise one, and could he have reached the vicinity of Elkhorn Tavern by daylight on the morning of the 7th, as he expected to, he would have found the Federal army unprepared to receive his attack, and would in all probability have won the victory. Again, as it was, if the column of McCulloch had been properly handled, the Confederates might have gained the day. But be that as it may, it was a great victory to the Union cause, inasmuch as to a great extent it kept the war out of Missouri for the next two years, and completely defeated Van Dorn's contemplated project of capturing St. Louis and extending the war into Illinois. It is the province of this work,, however, only to give the history, and not to make extended comments on what "might have been."

On the second day of the Pea Ridge battle Brig.-Gen. William Y. Slack, commanding a force under Gen. Price, was mortally wounded in a charge made on a part of the Federal line. His home was in Chillicothe, Mo. He was a lawyer by profession; was a captain in the Mexican War under Sterling Price, who was then a colonel.

Composition, strength and losses of the contending armies at Pea Ridge:

Federal Army: Brig. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, commander.

First and Second Divisions, Brig.-Gen Franz Sigel.

First Division, consisting of two brigades of infantry and two batteries of artillery, commanded by Col. Peter J. Osterhaus.

Second Division, consisting of the First Brigade, some unattached troops, and two batteries: Brig.-Gen Alexander Asboth.

Third Division, consisting of two brigades, one battery and some cavalry: Col. Jeff. C. Davis.

Fourth Division, consisting of two brigades, one battery and some unattached cavalry and infantry: Col. Eugene A. Carr.

Effective force of Union army, 10,500 infantry and cavalry, with forty-nine pieces of artillery. [See "Official Records" VIII, page 196.]

Total loss of Union army: 203 killed, 980 wounded, and 201 captured or missing. Total 1,384.

Confederate Army: Maj.-Gen. Earl Van Dorn, commander.

Missouri State Guards: Maj.-Gen. Sterling Price.

Confederate Volunteers: Various commands.

State Troops: Second, Third, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Divisions.

McCulloch's Division (various commands): Brig.-Gen. Ben. McCulloch.

Pike's command, consisting of Indians and a squadron of Texas cavalry: Brig.-Gen. Albert Pike. Other troops not included in the foregoing.

Effective force of Confederate army: Price's command, 6,818, with eight batteries of artillery [Official Records, VIII, page 305]; McCulloch's command, 8,384, with four batteries of eighteen pieces [Official Records, VIII, page 763]; Pike's command, 1,000 [Official Records, VIII, page 288]; aggregate, 16,202 infantry and cavalry. This, of course, includes the number left back with Green to guard the trains. The Confederate loss has been reported at 800 to 1,000 killed and wounded, and between 200 and 300 prisoners, which, if correct, would make the loss about equal to that of the Federal army.

Elkhorn Tavern. -- The site of this famous tavern was settled in 1832 by James Hannors, of Illinois, who in 1834, sold it to William Redick, also from Illinois. The latter built the house known as the "Elkhorn Tavern." It was an ordinary two-story frame, with a front porch to each story, and a brick chimney on the outside at each end, and was adorned on top with a huge pair of elk-horns taken from an animal killed by Mr. Casedy, who settled the site of Pratt's store, which still remains on the Pea Ridge battle-field. During the battle of Pea Ridge Mr. Cox, who lived in the tavern, was obliged, with his mother and his young wife, to seek protection in the cellar. The Federals took the elk-horns from the building, and sent them finally to New York, and during the latter part of the war the house was burned. In 1886 Mr. J. C. Cox, who still owns the property, rebuilt the tavern upon the original plan and on the original site. Then, through the assistance of Col. Hunt P. Wilson, of St. Louis, who, with the Confederate army, participated in the battle, he procured the return of the elk-horns and placed them upon the new building, where they are now gazed upon by the many who visit that historic place.

Devastations of War.-- From the date of the battle of Pea Ridge to the close of the war Benton County was alternately possessed overrun and devastated by the opposing armies. Provisions, crops and other property was appropriated for the use of the troops; houses were pillaged and burned, and the fences on many farms, especially in the vicinity of the soldiers' camps, were entirely consumed for fuel. Good, dry rails burned so much easier than green wood, made better fires, and saved the labor of chopping. However, the soldiers only took the "top rails," but it was understood that after these were taken off the next ones in turn became "top rails," and so on down to the bottom. Many citizens were wantonly killed, some for their money, and others for no cause whatever. Some were even tortured with fire to compel them to give up their money, or tell where it was concealed. The taking of provisions, horses and other animals for the use of the armies, and the burning of rails for fuel, was authorized by the officers of both; but the burning of buildings, with but few exceptions, if any, the killing of defenseless citizens, and the torturing of others for the purposes of robbery, were not authorized by the officers unless by some inferior subordinates of either army.

War gives an excellent opportunity for thieves and robbers to practice their fiendish profession, and on the occasion of the late war this class of men armed themselves and organized as bandits, and scoured the country, stealing, plundering, burning and murdering as they went. To them and the bushwhackers the greatest atrocities were chargeable. Of the depredations generally authorized by the "usages of war," the Federal army is undoubtedly chargeable with the greater portion in Benton County, as the citizens were not generally in sympathy with it, while they were in sympathy with the Confederate army, hence the reason. There were bad men in both armies, who committed many misdeeds, for which neither could be held responsible. War is a terrible thing, and it is hoped and fully believed that the people of the United States now living will never see any more of it, especially among themselves. The many individual incidents that occurred in Benton County during the late struggle, if related, would fill a volume in themselves, and consequently cannot be inserted in this work.

Confederate Reunion at Pea Ridge. -- On the first day of September, 1887, over twenty-five years after the battle of Pea Ridge was fought, the people, with the surviving veteran soldiers, met on that famous field to commemorate the event, and to witness the unveling of the monument erected to the memory of Gens. McCulloch, McIntosh and Slack, and other brave Confederates who fell on that occasion. The camp-ground for the reunion was established one mile southwest of Elkhorn Tavern, near a fine gushing spring in a densely shaded grove. Here thousands of people, including many veterans, assembled to enjoy the occasion. From this lovely spot in plain view lay the high point where once stood Sigel's battery, and off to the southwest of him was the Round Mountain, where stood the Confederate battery. The points where McCulloch and McIntosh lost their lives were still a mile or so further west and southwest of Sigel's battery.

About 100 yards southwest of the old tavern stands the monument built by the people of Benton County to the memory of their fallen heroes. The square pedestal that rises from the base has an inscription on each side, as follows: On the north, "Gen. W. Y. Slack, of Missouri;" on the west, "Gen. Ben McCulloch, of Texas;" on the south, "Gen. James McIntosh, of Arkansas," and on the east, "The brave Confederate dead, who fell on this field March 7 and 8, 1862." It is a plain unpretentious shaft of marble that does credit to the donors. Below the pedestal and above the sandstone base is a marble block, upon which the following verses are inscribed:

Oh give me a land where the rains are spread,
And the living tread light on the hearts of the dead;
Yes, give me a land that is blest by the dust
And bright with the deeds of the downtrodden just.

O give me the land with a grave in each spot,
And names in the graves that shall not be forgot.
Yes, give me the land of the wreck and the tomb;
There's a grandeur in graves, there's a glory in gloom.

The graves of our dead, with green overgrown,
May yet form the footstool of liberty's throne,
And each single wreck in the war-path of might,
Shall yet be a rock in the temple of right.

A few yards from the spot where the monument is erected stood Capt. Bledsoe's battery, which included the famous cannon, "Old Sacramento," which had seen service through the Mexican War.

The address of welcome was delivered by Col. S. W. Peel, member of Congress from that district, and the response thereto was made by Judge C. A. DeFrance. The latter drew a contrast between the welcome extended to the large number of Federal soldiers who were present, and the terrible reception given them on the spot twenty-five years before. They were then welcomed with bloody hands to gory graves, and now they were welcomed as friends and neighbors, and were happy to accept and extend hospitalities.

Ex-Gov. Lubbock, of Texas, delivered the general address, concluding it by commending both the "Blue and the Grey" for their bravery, and by exhorting his hearers "to stand by the old constitution as it now is, and be a loyal and conservative people." He was followed by Senator Berry, Judge DeFrance, Col. T. J. Patton and others, who made appropriate short speeches.

In compiling the history of the battle of Pea Ridge the writer acknowledges assistance from Hon. D. H. Hammons and others, who participated in the battle on the Confederate side, as well as from a few Union soldiers who participated therein, and also from the Benton County Journal, which contains a brief sketch of the battle. Acknowledgments are also due to the Journal for the account of the Confederate Reunion on the occasion of unveiling the monument to Gen. McCulloch and others.