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THE QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER
OF THE HISTORIC GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
OF MARION COUNTY ARKANSAS
Vol. 7, No. 3 July 2002 Yellville, Arkansas 72687
MARION COUNTY - THE DIVIDED
Compiled by Vicki A. Roberts,
2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687
During 1864 and 1865, confederate and Union Troops vied for control of the White River Valley and the land along the Buffalo River. This area saw much action between the men of the blue and the men of the gray. Even though no actual full-scale battles were fought in this area many skirmishes took place here.
By this time in the war, tempers were short, food was scarce, and the confederate clothing was wearing thin.
March 13-26, 1864 Scouts from the 2nd> Arkansas Cavalry were sent from Yellville to the Buffalo River.
March 19, 1864, Captain Turner and his men returned to Yellville and reported to have captured 22 bushwhackers, the killing of 10, the capture of 22 stands of arms, and 28 horses and mules.
March 24, 1894, Captain turner [U] and 105 men marched south form Yellville. Twenty-five miles south of Yellville on the Buffalo River, they encountered a small rebel band under the command of Captain Love. A skirmish followed in which 3 rebels were killed and a number of horses and mules captured.
March 25,1864, Constant scouting and skirmishing with guerrillas and the 2nd Arkansas Cavalry was reported.
April 23, 1864, Captain Turner, 6th Missouri State Militia [U] arrived in Yellville from a reconnaissance on Richland Creek, which took place on 13 April 1864. An attack on the rebels resulted in Captain Watkins and 4 others being killed.
May 19, 1864, Lt. Col. Hugh Cameron, Commander of Company M of the 2nd Arkansas Cavalry crossed Tomahawk about noon and arrived in Yellville at sundown, taking John burns, Robert Smith and Elisha Estes prisoners. During the night John Burns escaped. Later Smith and Estes were released.
August 23, 26 of 1864, A scout from Ozark Missouri to Dubuque Crossing and Sugar Loaf Prairie detached from the 2nd Arkansas Cavalry.
During the course of the war over six thousand Union Troops came from the south through Marion County. Among these were William Martin Adams, brother of Jesse Adams and John Smith. They stopped at Sarah Adams cabin near Freck. She was frightened because she did not recognize her own brother- in- law. Many of these troops were left behind to either guard against rebel attacks or to escort those who wished, to travel into Missouri.
April 1865 was the beginning of the end of the war. On April 1, Lee's right broke in the Battle of Five Forks, outside Petersburg. On April 2, Grant's troops drove Lee's men from their Petersburg works. The Confederate Government left their exposed capital in Richmond Virginia. During the night, Lee led his army west. On April 4th, President Abraham Lincoln paid a visit to the now Union occupied Richmond.
April 6th, the last major clash in Virginia with a Union victory took place at Sayler's Creek. April 7th, by written request, Grant asked Lee to surrender his army. April 9th, Union forces blocked the passage of Lee's weakened army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. Lee met with Grant and surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia.
On April 11th 1865, President Lincoln spoke in Washington, he predicted trying post-war times. April 12th, under attack since March 25, Mobile, Alabama fell to the Federals.
April 14, 1865: President Lincoln was shot at Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth. Mr. Lincoln was carried to a nearby home, where he died on the 15th of April. Andrew Johnson became the new President. On April 18th Johnston and Sherman signed a peace agreement in North Carolina. April 19th, 1865 after the funeral service at the White House, President Lincoln's body lay in state in the Capitol. On the 21st, a train bearing his body begins a two-week trip to Illinois.
April 24th, Sherman [U] was told that the peace terms he gave to Johnston [C] were invalid. April 26th, upon accepting terms like those offered to Lee, [C] Johnston [C] surrendered to Sherman [U] near Durham Station, North Carolina. In Virginia, John Wilkes Booth was killed by Union Troops.
April 28th, Confederate President Jefferson Davis, in flight with his cabinet since the fall of Richmond, is in South Carolina. His treasury secretary resigned.
May 11, 1865, General M. Jeff Thompson signed an agreement at Chalk Bluff, Arkansas, arranging the surrender of Confederate forces in northeast Arkansas. They later turned themselves in at Wittsburg and Jacksonport. All Confederate forces remaining west of the Mississippi River were surrendered at New Orleans on May 26th.
Under the best of circumstances, the Ozarks region should have been ignored by both sides. But it was not, for the Civil War was above all else a political war. Both Union and Confederacy lay claim to the Ozarks. Making the presence of enemy forces unavoidable, yet acceptable. The Northern goal was pacification, a restoration of law and order, and the re-establishment of loyalty to the Union. Although most Ozarkians probably preferred neutrality, when forced to choose most sided with eh Union despite their Southern antecedents.
Confederate objectives included the expulsion of a "foreign" invader, and the disruption of enemy operations. Revenge, for either real of imaginary atrocities, soon joined the list of motivations for both sides. Had the achievement of these goals been entrusted to well-trained, discipline troops led by responsible leadership the war in the Ozarks might have gone much the same as in Tennessee and other parts of the south. Due to the isolation and poor communications due to the rugged terrain, limited manpower and the shortsightedness of the authorities in Richmond and Washington, the struggle for the Ozarks became a reality.
Caught in the middle were thousands of families, who increasingly were forced to make decisions based on pure survival. In most of these instances were women trying desperately to maintain a home a family while the husband was away fighting. These women faced acute crisis every time soldiers approached her home. White rape, looting, and murder occurred in the Ozarks; the most common response of either Union or Confederate guerrillas toward civilians suspected of supporting the enemy was to bum them out.
Lacking men and material, Southern commanders west of the Mississippi took full advantage of Confederate laws authorizing independent companies of partisan rangers. Although the rangers were required to report regularly, most seldom did and the Ozarks swarmed with bands of men whose allegiance to the South varied from sincere to conditional.
During 1865 warfare was carried on against the small bands of guerrillas who infested northwestern Arkansas, and many were killed. The news of the surrender of General Kirby Smith, then commanding the Trans-Mississippi department of Confederate States was not received in Northern Arkansas until about the 1 of July 1865 after which quite was mainly restored; and on the 23rd of August the 1st Arkansas Cavalry was mustered out of service.
Yellville, Arkansas located in Marion County was considered a recruitment center during the War Between the States. Held by both Confederate and FederaI troops, small community was pulled in both directions during the war years. Nearly every building in the town was burned during the conflict. Yellville was burned four different times. At one such time 13 houses were set fire at once.
Sources Used: Civil War in the Ozarks by Steel and Cottrell; Civil War Curiosities by Garrison; Tomahawk Tales by Herrington; Portraits of Conflict by Roberts and Moneylion; History of Boone County; History of Carroll County; History of Baxter County by Messick; Marion County History by Berry; Borderland rebellion by Ingenthron; Turnbo Tales by S.C Turnbo; White River Chronicles by Morrow and Keefe; Encyclopedia of History of Missouri, Vol VI pg 463; New York Herald, July 31, 1861; Impression of the War Years by John P. Morrow; Early Days of Yellville Arkansas by Estes; History of Arkansas by J. H. Shinn 1923; 7th, 14th and 27th Arkansas Cavalry by Desmond Allen; Dowds Company State Troops by Bryan R. Howerton; War of the rebellion - Records of Union and Confederate Armies Series, I, Vol XXII and 2; Taney County Time 3 Sept 1891; Civil War Dictionary by Mark M. Boatner III. .
THE BLOODIES WAR AND IT'S MEDICINE
Dr. Thomas Sweeney, M.D. wrote "The Civil War was the bloodiest war ever fought by the United States. More Lives were lost in it than in all other American wars combined, from the revolutionary War to the Korean War. The Civil War saw the death of some 618,000 souls-the Union 360,000, the Confederates, 258,000. "
The chief killer during these war years was not the cannon or the musket but disease; 4I4,000 died from disease. The high death rate resulted from, several factors. A majority of soldiers were from rural areas and had not been exposed to measles and other diseases, which prevailed in the cities and greater populated areas. Ignorance played a major role in the cause and treatment of diseases on the part of the patient as well as the doctors. Diet was deficient both in the camps and in the field. Fruits, vegetables and milk were difficult or next to impossible to obtain and lack of these caused scurvy and other intestinal problems. Filth was one of the main contributing factors to all diseases during this time period. Most soldiers thought only of convenience in disposing of their waste. This created the cause for many flies, germ- spreading mosquitoes, fleas and lice.
The common maladies were malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, and measles. Smallpox, Pneumonia, tuberculosis and yellow fever were less common but all took a heavy toll on lives. Typhoid was probably responsible for one-fourth of all the deaths from disease among the war participants. As many soldiers died from diarrhea as from combat.
At the beginning of the war, neither side was prepared to meet the medical needs of the armies. The Union medical department consisted of one surgeon general with the rank of colonel 30 surgeons with rank of major, and 84 assistant surgeons with rank of 1st lieutenant. There were no hospital or ambulance corps and the nursing was done by inexperienced soldiers, usually those recovering from illness or wounds that were temporarily being detained for their recovery period. Hospital at this time was scarcely places of tender loving care. They were always over- crowded, most of the time filthy and stinking. However deplorable this situation was, the South was worse. Hospitals were erected in homes, tents, under shade trees, or in the back of wagons. Drugs were few and far between in the south. Amputation was the common treatment for severe wounds to the limbs because of the probability of infection. Amputation was always performed if the wound had caused loss of a large amount of soft tissue, or if it involved a joint. Survival rate from surgery was more likely if the patient were wounded, and operated on, in places free from animal droppings and other filth. The survival rate from amputation ranged widely from about 15% to 65%.
The major drugs were quinine, morphia, and other opium derivatives. Chloroform and sometimes ether were used as anesthetics. Whiskey was frequently administered to the wounded. Whiskey was also mixed with quinine and administered daily to suppress malaria. Other drugs were pepsin, various emetics to induce vomiting, cathartics, iodine, and calomel. Dysentery might be treated with oil of Turpentine or ipecac, though neither was very effective.
Here in the Ozarks, the treating of the wounded and the ill was much the same as else where in the war. The Berry House, which still stands today in Yellville was used by both Union and Confederate forces as a hospital during the war. Soldiers wrote their names on the walls during their time there. As the war waged on, the women of the country took up the jobs of nursing the wounded and sick and cleaning up the "hospitals". These women contributed largely to the healing and the recovery of many men here in the Ozarks and allover the south.
FROM THE EDITOR
This has been one busy year. AS you might have noticed we had to combine two editions of the Bramble Bush this year but we promise not to do that again. I was always told the older a person got the faster time went by. Man, if I get any older, time will really be on the move. You also noticed that we are sporting a brand new book. Well, it's not really new but it has been out of print for so many years, that to many it will seem new. We were able to obtain the copyright from Mr. Lyle Wood to be able to print this book once again. We are grateful to Mr. Wood for the privilege to make this book available to the public once again. This will be the Silver Anniversary Edition and it is a beauty. We have added an index and it looks great. There were only 200 of these printed so don't waste time if you want one. I doubt they will last long.
THE HISTORY OF MARION COUNTY
I have one of the first copies done in 1977 but I won't hesitate to purchase this beauty of a book.
Spring is here and by the time this Bush reaches all of you, summer will be here as well. Here in the Ozarks we have had the privilege of enjoying the dogwood, the lilacs and all the other spring flowers native to this area. When I write of the War between the States, I have to stop and wonder about the beauty of this country that was destroyed by all the armies moving back a forth across this beautiful landscape. However, as always this land of ours has the capacity to rebuild and correct the mistakes of mankind. We have had rains this year unlike most summers here in the Ozarks. Storms crop up at all hours. We all here in BB land hope you had a happy Fourth of July and are enjoying your summer. We will see you again in the fall. Enjoy.
Vicki Roberts, Editor
25TH SILVER ANNIVERSARY EDITION
ORDER YOUR TODAY
REPRINTED AFTER 25 YEARS WITH PERMISSION OF LYLE WOOD
LIMITED NUMBER AVAILABLE
$75.00 PLUS $5 SHIPPING AND HANDLING
SEND TO : HGSMCA
P.O. BOX 761
1891 REAL ESTATE TAX ASSESSMENTS
Transcribed by Janice Mears, PO Box 628, Bull Shoals AR 72619
Included here is more of the 1891 Real Estate Tax List. This list is now on-line at the Marion Co Site
SERVICE DIRECTORY is published in Bramble Bush as a service to those who may wish to advertise some of the many books, products, and services available that relate to historic and/or genealogical research. The charge per ad is $12 per year. Ads from both members and non-members are accepted. The name and address of a contact person must accompany an each ad.
"CEMETERIES OF MARION COUNTY." Marian S. Burnes. Indexed. $20. Marion Burnes, 2102 W. Jefferson, Siloam Springs, AR 72761.
"EARLY DAYS AND WAR TIMES IN NORTHERN ARKANSAS." Thomas Jerome Estes. Reprint 1999 (1928). $5. HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
"EARLY DAYS OF MARION COUNTY." Lester & Marian Burnes 1992. Indeed. $25. Marion Burnes, 2102 W. Jefferson, Siloam Springs AR 72761.
"GENEALOGIES OF MARION COUNTY FAMILIES 1811-1900." Genealogies of 400+ families settling in MCAR by 1900. Hardbound. Indexed. $60. HGSMCA, PO Box 761,Yellville AR 72687.
"INDEX TO THE MOUNTAIN ECHO 12 March 1886 thru 26 June 1903." Birth, marriage, death abstracts. $24.50 + $3.50 s/h. Margie Garr, 1505, Mistletoe, Mountain Home AR 72653, (870)-425-0405.
MARION CO. AR 1880 FEDERAL CENSUS. Gladys Horn Brown. Indexed. $21. HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
****NEW::: 25th SILVER ANNIVERSARY EDITION * HISTORY OF MARION COUNTY, indexed. $75 plus $5 shipping. HGSMCA, PO BOX 761,YELLVILLE AR 72687******
"MARION CO. AR MARRIAGE RECORDS 1887-1896." Marian S. Burnes & Vicki A. Roberts. Indexed. $15. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687.
"MARION CO. AR MARRIAGE RECORDS 1896-1905." Marian S. Burnes & Vicki A. Roberts. Indexed. $15. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687.
"MARION CO. AR MARRIAGE RECORDS 1905-1917" Marian S. Burnes & Vicki A. Roberts. Indexed. "$15. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687.
"MARION CO. AR 1890 CENSUS." Helen McMindes 1992. Reconstructed from 1880 & 1900 census, tax records, etc. Indexed. Hardbound. $45 including postage. HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH. Marion Co., AR and surround areas. Experienced researcher. $10 per hour plus copy costs and postage. Vicki Roberts, 2362 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687; (870)-449-6195 aft 6:00 pm CST.
GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH. Marion Co. AR area. $10 per hour plus copy costs and postage. Expreienced researcher. Mysty McPherson, 35 MC 6023, Yellville AR 72687; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Membership in the Historical Genealogical Society of Marion County Arkansas is $12 per year.
* * Membership for one year runs form 1 January to 31 December of that year.
Membership includes the quarterly newsletter Bramble Bush.
Membership begun later in the year includes all issues of Bramble Bush for that year.
Make your check for $12 payable to HGSMCA and send to HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687-9612
S i l v e r A n n i v e r s a r y
E d i t i o n
H i s t o r y o f
M a r i o n C o u n t y
By E a r l B e r r y
HISTORIC GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF MARION COUNTY ARKANSAS
With permission of copyright holder
HISTORY PHOTOGRAPHS FAMILY SKETCHES 525 PAGES INDEX
DARK GREEN HARD COVER 6" X 9"SILVER LETTERING
The Bramble Bush is published quarterly by the Historic Genealogical Society of Marion County Arkansas, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687. EDITORIAL STAFF: Editor, Vicki Roberts; Design/Production, Mysty McPherson; Art Work, Bonnie Sanders; Queries, Mary Birrer; Subscriptions, Barbara Holland; Printing, Penny Pincher Printing, 722 Locust, Conway AR 72034; Contributing writers, Janice Mears. HGSMCA OFFICERS: Chair, Vicki A. Roberts; Vice-Chair, Mysty McPherson; Secretary, Mary Birrer; Treasurer, Barbara Holland; Grants/Purchasing, Mysty McPherson.
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