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THE QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER
OF THE HISTORIC GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
OF MARION COUNTY ARKANSAS
Vol. 7, No. 1 & 2 January & April 2002 Yellville, Arkansas 72687
THE DIVIDED (Part 5)
by Vicki A. Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687
"If there is any place on God's fair earth where wickedness stalketh abroad in daylight, it is in the army," wrote a Confederate soldier in a letter to his family back home.
* * * * *
The army was made up of three main units - Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery.
Infantry troops were designated by a blue stripe on their uniforms. Companies had 100 men each. Regiments had ten companies each. In some units there were fewer than ten companies - usually four to eight - and these were called Battalions. Brigades were made up of three to six Regiments. Corps had from two to four Divisions. Armies had from one to eight Corps depending upon the geographic area. As units fought battles and men were killed, the size of the units would change. For this reason men from various other units were often moved and combined in order to bring the number of soldiers back up to fighting capacity. It was not uncommon for a soldier to be in more than one company or regiment during his military career.
Cavalry troops were designated by a yellow stripe on their uniforms. Companies, or Troops as they were called, were made up of 100 men. During a battle, if the cavalry were dismounted, one man out of every four would stay behind and guard the horses. Regiments consisted of ten companies. The South put their Cavalry Troops in Brigades of their own. Later in the war they also had Cavalry Divisions and Cavalry Corps. .
Artillery Troops were designated by a red stripe on their uniforms. Each Battery had four guns and 120 men. Early in the war, each Infantry Brigade was assigned one Battery as well as a few reserves. By the middle of 1862, Battalions replaced Brigades and they consisted of three or four Batteries each. Artillery Reserves were made up of two to five Battalions and were used to form massed Batteries.
Other units were Legions, which contained Infantry, Cavalry, and Artillery troops; Marines, which fought along the Atlantic coast; Heavy Artillery, which were made up of ten Artillery Batteries; Engineers, who were in charge of building projects; and Sharpshooters, which were Independent Companies.
QM stands for Quartermaster Corps or what we would think of as supply personnel. Each Company would have a QM Sergeant reporting to the Regiment! QM who would be the person to draw the supplies for them.
Life in the army camps of the Civil War were abundant with boredom, mischief, fear, disease, and death.
Army regulations called for the camps to be laid out in a fixed grid pattern with the officers' quarters at the front end of each street and the enlisted men's quarters aligned to the rear. A camp was set up roughly along the lines in which the unit would draw up in a battle line. Each Company displayed its colors on the outside of its tents. Regulations also defined the location of the mess tents, medical tents, and baggage trains. These camps were more often than not truly dismal places, mired in mud in the winter and choked with dust in the summer.
Troops slept in canvas tents. At the beginning of the war, both sides used the Sibley tent, named for its inventor, Henry H. Sibly, who later became a Confederate Brigadier General. This tent was a large cone of canvas, about 18 feet in diameter and 12 feet high, supported by a center pole. This tent had a circular opening at the top for ventilation and a cone shaped stove for heat. It was very similar to the Indian teepee. Although this tent was designed to house a dozen men comfortably, most of the time the army assigned about 20 men to each one. When all the air vent flaps were closed on cold or rainy days, the air inside became fetid with the odors of unwashed men.
As the War progressed, the Sibley was replaced with smaller tents. The Federal Armies favored the wedge tent - a 6-foot length of canvas draped over a horizontal ridgepole, staked along the sides, with flaps that closed. When canvas became scarce in the south, Confederates were forced to rig open-air beds by heaping straw or leaves between two logs. In autumn and winter, those units that were able to find wood built crude huts, laying split logs on the earth floor and fashioning bunks with mattresses of pine needles or leaves.
When not in battle or on the march, the average day for troops in camp began at 5 a.m. in the summer and 6 a.m. in the winter. The camp was awakened by reveille and the First Sergeant took roll call. The men ate the first meal of the day and prepared for the long day of drilling and marching. Between drilling, which lasted about two hours at a time, the soldiers would clean the camp, gather wood for cooking fires, build roads, dig trenches for latrines, and search for clean water. The lack of water or a way to haul it was a constant problem that led to widespread disease in both armies. At the beginning of the war, both sides were well fed. The mandated ration for a Federal soldier in 1861 included at least 20 ounces of fresh or salt beef or 12 ounces of salt pork, more than a pound of flour, and a vegetable - usually beans. Coffee, salt, vinegar, and sugar were provided as well. By far the most important ration to the soldier was coffee. The northern soldier was usually well supplied with it. The southern soldier was often forced to make do with a substitute made from peanuts, potatoes, peas, and chickory.
As the war progressed, the armies were forced to live off the land. The Confederates, who fought mostly on home ground, tried harder to curb pillaging, preferring to request donations from townspeople rather than to steal supplies or take them by force. Attached to most armies was the sutler, a purveyor of all goods not issued by the army. These goods included tobacco, candy, tinned meats, showlaces, patent medicines, fried pies, and newspapers. Sutlers were known for their steep prices and shoddy goods. But in most cases the soldier would be desperate for cigarettes, sweets, and news from home.
Hunger and boredom competed for attention in the army camps. One soldier wrote, "There is some of the onerest men here that I ever saw, and the most swearing and card playing and fitin [fighting] and drunkenness that I ever saw at any place." When not drilling or standing guard, most soldiers read, wrote letters to their loved ones, or played games. One soldier told of racing lice and cockroaches across a strip of canvas. Confederate General Braxton stated, "We have lost more valuable lives at the hands of whiskey sellers than by the balls of our enemies."
During the winter of '63-4, Shaler's Command [CSA] was camped across Crooked Creek south of Yellville. A cold! Snowy time in the Ozarks. Many of the men were ragged and almost barefoot. Traces of blood could often be seen in the snow where the men had walked. Clothes were scarce, especially shoes or boots. Food was scarce in Yellville too. Smoke houses had been cleaned out for their salt and raiding parties had taken what little meat the people may have had. If a garden had been planted in the spring! bushwhackers or renegades or others probably took the vegetables before theywere ready for harvest.
The Second Regiment Arkansas Cavalry [USA] was organized at Helena AR and Pilot Knob MO in July 1862. It was attached to the Helena AR District Southwest Missouri. The men saw service across all of northwest Arkansas.
/ / / / /
The Second Regiment Arkansas Cavalry [USA] was involved in operations against Guerillas in northwest Arkansas 22 January 1864 on Clear Creek and Tomahawk Creek.
The First Arkansas Cavalry [USA] was organized at Cassville MO and Springfield MO in the summer of 1862. The Company was mustered in at Springfield MO on 7 Aug of the same year. Primary recruitment places were Washington Co. AR, Carroll Co. AR, and Benton Co. AR as well as Barry and Greene Counties in MO. This company saw service mainly in northwest Arkansas. It was mustered out on 20 Aug 1865 with a total enlistment of 1,774 men.
/ / / / /
On January 25 1864, Major Gunning [CSA] with 200 men from Yellville advanced upon the First Arkansas Cavalry [USA], commanded by Captain John I. Worthington and Lt. Lawson Jernigan, which was camped on the Buffalo River in Searcy County and attacked around noon. The First Arkansas Cavalry [USA} retreated in confusion. Lt. Lawson Jernigan [USA] was wounded and several were taken prisoner. A continual skirmishing and "picket fighting" continued until dusk.
Around dark Major Gunning [CSA] was reinforced by Colonel Freeman [CSA] with 500 men from Izard County and together they completely surrounded the First Arkansas Cavalry [USA]. An attempt by about 200 Rebels was made to capture the First Arkansas Cavalry's howitzer,which was manned by Lt. Thompson. The gun was loaded and fired at the Rebels from about 30 paces, killing many and causing them to fall back. Hand fighting resulted, with the First Arkansas Cavalry [USA] retreating. Major Gunning [CSA] and Colonel Freeman [CSA] reported the loss of 30 Confederate men and many wounded. The First Arkansas Cavalry [USA] reported six killed and seven wounded. Captain John Worthington of the First Arkansas Cavalry [USA] was later killed 15 March 1865 on King's River, east of Fayetteville.
During the months of January and February 1864 a detachment of the First Arkansas Cavalry [USA] commanded by Captains Galloway and Botefuhr, served in Carroll, Marion, and Searcy Counties under orders from Brigadier General C. B. Holland from the District of South West Missouri. They were engaged repeatedly with the enemy and received high praise in General Holland's official reports.
/ / / / /
In February 1864 between 600 and 800 Confederate troops encamped on White River near Yellville, planning to move into Missouri.
On 9 February 1864 General C. B. Holland [USA] arrived at Yellville with 300 men and two pieces of artillery of the First Arkansas Cavalry [USA] and the 8th Cavalry [USA] and the Missouri State Guard. A scout was sent by way of Tomahawk and on the 10th to Dubuque AR on White River. The scouting party reported 100 Rebels killed and two Union men killed and three wounded.
On 17 February 1864 General C. B. Holland [USA] wrote of being surprised at such a thoroughly Union sentiment in Carroll, Marion, and Searcy Counties. He further stated, "A feeling of security, inspired by the presence of Union troops in the country, caused many to come in and asknowledge their faith in and devotion to the Old Flag."
On 13 March 1864, Captain Samuel E. Turner, 6th Cavalry Missouri State Militia [USA] and a force of 109 men marched from Yellvlle south to the Buffalo River where the saltpeter works were located on Tomahawk Mountain. Captain Turner reported this gunpowder works belonging to the Confederates was destroyed. He also reported that a large amount of stolen property was found in concealed caves. To be continued - - - -
FROM THE EDITOR
I, for one, am glad to see a NEW YEAR. The year 2001 brought many things to us as Americans. It brought joy to see the beginning of the New Millenium. But in September it brought grief and heartache. Yet, this past year has made us stronger as Americans, awakened us to world stife, and made us aware that, in order to be a free country, we have to fight once again for what is ours. FREEDOM. Songs are being sung, poems written, email is flowing with patriotic verse and pictures, and, once again, we are standing together as Americans.
Here at BB and HGSMCA., we are preparing some really great things for 2002. Probably the best of all is that we've recently received permission from copyright holder Lyle Wood to reprint the original HISTORY OF MARION COUNTY published in 1977. This book has been out of print for many years. As you scan through this issue of BB, you will find an order blank for your Silver Anniversary Edition of this informative book. It is beautifully bound in dark green and lettered in silver. It comes with an index and a photo of the people who worked so hard to bring this book to the people of Marion County twenty-five years ago.
We have several other books out now. These include Gleanings of Pioneer History by W. R. Jones; Early Days and War Times in North Arkansas by T. J. Estes; and Marion County As She Was in 1836 by W. B. Flippin. These are all great books about Marion County and contain some of the earliest records we have. A new book for 2002 will be The Writings of A. C. Jeffreys. It's made up of a series of articles first published in the Melbourne Clipper in 1877 and republished in The Mountain Echo in the early 1890s. Our edition includes thumbnail sketches of families Jeffreys talked about as early settlers along White River as far back as 1814. This is a really good book and will be new to many of you. Don't miss it!
Our "Big Blue II," a supplement to Genealogies of Marion County Families 1811-1900 is still in progress. Still lots of new stuff being added so don't give up on us. Our Pictorial History of Marion County is still in progress too. At present we are working with about 1100 pictures - and more are coming in every day. We may decide to divide this book into two parts. Watch for announcements on these two books.
The year 2002 marks our 12th year as a society and we are gaining every year. We have more books and more information than we've ever had. We've received many wonderful responses to our current Civil War series, and we hope you will continue to enjoy the articles that make up BB.
May the year 2002 bring to each of you health and prosperity and may it bring peace to the world.
Vicki Roberts, Editor
BITS AND PIECES
A member of the Society, Gene Sherburne, sent the photo of this flag to us with the following explanation of what it is. "This flag was picked up from the battle field at Jenkins' Ferry. The Wisconsin Historical Society said it was picked up 30 April 1864, but the battle occurred 27 April 1864. Maybe by stragglers, but who knows. The flag was taken to Wisconsin by members of the ninth Wisconsin Infantry. It was kept there until recently when the Historical Society returned it to the Arkansas National Guard Museum at Camp Robinson. It was shipped to them in the box it was put in back in the 1940s. It's in pretty bad shape, but they're going to try to get it restored and/or preserved so it can go on display at the State Museum. It's believed it belonged to the 27th AR Infantry, the 33rd AR Infantry, or the 34th AR Infantry. It is the second variant of the Confederate flag that several of the Regiments carried.
"The Wisconsin Historical Society has several other flags that they're trying to identify and return to their rightful owners. The Sons of Confederate Veterans in Wisconsin have been lobbying to get this done.
"My great-grandfathers brother, Captain Jacob Wythe Walker, was the Commander of Company A of the 34th AR Infantry and his other brother, C. W. Walker, was in the same company. That's one of the reasons I've taken such an interest in this flag."
>From an email from Gene SherblJrne dated 17 December 2001.
MARION COUNTY VOTERS' LIST 1893
Included here is more of the 1893 County Voters' Lists. This list is now on-line at the Marion Co Site
S i l v e r A n n i v e r s a r y
E d i t i o n
H i s t o r y o f
M a r i o n C o u n t y
By E a r l B e r r y
HISTORIC GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF MARION COUNTY ARKANSAS
With permission of copyright holder
HISTORY PHOTOGRAPHS FAMILY SKETCHES 525 PAGES INDEX
DARK GREEN HARD COVER 6" X 9"SILVER LETTERING
MARION COUNTY, ARKANSAS
BOOKS FOR SALE
"CEMETERIES OF MARION COUNTY." Marian S. Burnes 1989. Hardbound. Indexed. $25 + $3.50 shipping. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville, AR 72687.
"EARLY DAYS AND WAR TIMES IN NORTHERN ARKANSAS." Thomas Jerome Estes. Reprint 1999 (1928). $5 + $1 shipping. HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
"EARLY DAYS OF MARION COUNTY." Lester & Marian Burnes 1992. Indeed. $25 + $3 shipping. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687.
"EARLY HISTORY. MARION COUNTY AS SHE WAS WHEN SETTLED 1836." Hon. W. B. Flippin. Transcribed by Don Ott 2001 (1899). $5 + $1 shipping. HGSMA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
"GENEALOGIES OF MARION COUNTY FAMILIES 1811-1900." HGSMCA 1997. Genealogies of 400 families settling in MCAR by 1900. Hardbound. Indexed. $60 + $5 shipping. HGSMCA, PO Box 761,Yellville AR 72687.
NEW "HISTORY OF MARION COUNTY" by Earl Berry. Silver Anniversary Edition. Reprint 2002 (1977). Hardbound. Now indexed. $75 + $5 shipping. HGSMCA, PO Box 761,Yellville AR 72687:
"GLEANINGS OF PIONEER HISTORY." W. R. Jones ca 1928. As he published them in his newspaper, The Mountain Echo. Transcribed by Don Ott 2001. $5 + $1 shipping. HGSMC4" PO Bo,'( 761" Ye/lvilleA.1? 72687.
"INDEX TO THE MOUNTAIN ECHO 12 March 1886 thru 26 June 1903." Birth, marriage, death abstracts. $23.50 + $3.50 s/h. Margie Garr, 1505, Misltletoe, Mountain Home AR 72653, (870)-425-0405.
IZARD CO, AR 1830 FEDERALCENSUS. Indexed. $4. Nancy A. Wood, 4643 S 28 Avenue, Tulsa OK 74107.
MARION CO. AR 1840 FEDERAL CENSUS. Indexed. $4. Nancy A. Wood, 4643 S 28 Avenue, Tulsa OK 74107.
MARION CO. AR 1850 FEDERAL CENSUS. Indexed. $10. Nancy A. Wood, 4643 S 28 Avenue, Tulsa OK 74107.
MARION CO. AR 1870 FEDERAL CENSUS. Nancie Todd Weber. Indexed. Annotated. $20. HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
MARION CO. AR 1880 FEDERAL CENSUS. Gladys Horn Brown. Indexed. $21. HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
"MARION CO. AR MARRIAGE RECORDS 1887-1896." Marian S. Burnes & Vicki A. Roberts. Indexed. $15. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687.
"MARION CO. AR MARRIAGE RECORDS 1896-1905." Marian S. Burnes & Vicki A. Roberts. Indexed. $15. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687.
"MARION CO. AR MARRIAGE RECORDS 1905-1917" Marian S. Burnes & Vicki A. Roberts. Indexed. "$15. Vicki Roberts, 2363 MC 5032, Yellville AR 72687.
"MARION CO. AR 1890 CENSUS." Helen McMindes 1992. Reconstructed from 1880 & 1900 census, tax records, etc. Indexed. Hardbound. $45 including postage. HGSMCA, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687.
Prices as of April 2002.
Marion Co., AR web page: http://argenweb.net/marion/
HISTORIC GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF MARION COUNTY ARKANSAS
PO BOX 761 YELLVILLE AR 72687
1891 REAL ESTATE TAX ASSESSMENTS
Transcribed by Janice Mears, PO Box 628, Bull Shoals AR 72619
Included here is more of the 1891 Real Estate Tax List. This list is now on-line at the Marion Co Site
UNITED STATES FEDERAL CENSUS 1880. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Covers the entire US. Fully indexed. Fully searchable. Installed in Society computer at Marion Co. Library, Yellville AR. Purchased by the Society
Queries is published in Bramble Bush as a service to researchers who may wish to exchange information of mutual historic and/or genealogical interests. Queries from both members and non-members are accepted, and are published in order of receipt, as space permits. If you respond to a query, kindly send a copy of your answer to Bramble Bush. Responsibility for accuracy of data in queries rests with the submitter.
COLLINS -BRUNDAGE. Seek info on ancestors and descendants of STEPHEN COLLINS and LOUISA JANE BRUNDAGE. Both buried Pontiac MO. Homesteaded 160 acres northeast of Oakland bordering MO state line ca 1880. Jim Steele, PO Box 77, Goddard KA 67052
COOPER - FANNIN. Seek documentation of marriage date and place for JAMES COOPER to MARY FANNIN. Also documentation that FANNIN was her maiden name. They came to MCAR, from AL in 1851, Sue Soderstrom, Bedford Ave, Spokane WA 99208-8941.
GRIFFIN. Seek info on CHARLES WILSON GRIFFIN b ca 1836 and wife MARGARET (RHODES) GRIFFIN b ca 1850. In North Fork Township MCAR 1900. Barbara Breedlove, RT 1 Box 335, Locust Grove OK 74352.
MAGNESS - SMOTHERS. Seek info on MARTHA A. MAGNESS b. Barren Creek Township MCAR ca 1848 m E. M. SMOTHERS. Known children: Rachel E, George Washington, Mack Calud, Laurie Jane. Mrs. J. D. Smothers, 9000 SE Hillview Drive, Amity OR 97101-2115. Email: email@example.com
PRESLEY. Seek parents of WILLIAM DAVE PRESLEY b 1876 and brother FRED PRESLEY b 1872. In Carthage MO as young newlyweds. On the census neither knew birth places of parents. Sue Soderstrom, 5215 W Bedford, Ave, Spokane WA 99208-8941.
RABY. Seek info on MARTHA JANE RABY b Big Flat 24 June 1878. Zina Rae Brownlee, 3125 Churchill Road, Sacramento CA 95864.
REYNOLDS. Seek info RICHARD REYNOLDS b TN ca 1812, wife REBECCA b TN ca 1830. Children: John Thomas, Sara, Martha, Margret, Matty Ann, Harriet. Dewayne Reynolds, 331 Windy Meadow Drve, Cedar Hill TX 75104. email: DWAustin55@aol.com
FAMILIES & FAIRS
Families & Fairs is designed to announce dates and places of reunions, ancestor fairs, and historical commemorations wherever they may be held. The information must reach us no later than March 15, June 15, September 15, and/or December 15 to be included in the next issue of Bramble Bush. The name and address of a contact person must be included. This feature is free of charge.
13th NORTH ARKANSAS ANCESTOR FAIR. JUNE 1, 2002, in LESLIE, ARKANSAS. Share your family research! Contact other researchers! AlI for free at the Genealogical Swap Meet called "North Arkansas Ancestor Fair." Table space & chairs for free to those who reserve them for family research, items to sell, and info to share. All you have to do is show up. And attendance is also free. For schedule and reservation form e-mail James Johnston at firstname.lastname@example.org. These will be sent snail mail so be sure to include your address. Mark your calendars, folks, and make your travel plans. This event is absolutely awesome. Providers include family researchers, historic and genealogical societies, book and CD sellers, Civil War groups, Native American researchers, county groups, and similar types of resources. It's a real happening place.
DILLARD REUNION. June 20 thru 22, 2002. Mull Manor, RT 14 south of Yellville. For information contact email@example.com
LANGSTON REUNION. Saturday, 8 June 2002, Orange Room, REA Building, Salem, Fulton Co. AR. Silver Anniversary Reunion. For information contact Brian Langston, 888 E. Main Street, Batesville AR 72501. Phone 870-793-4328. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
DANIEL WEBSTER and HANNAH (TREAT) HALL REUNION. Saturday, 15 June 2002. Woodmen of The World Building, Yellville AR. For information contact Hollie Poley email@example.com
The Bramble Bush is published quarterly by the Historic Genealogical Society of Marion County Arkansas, PO Box 761, Yellville AR 72687. EDITORIAL STAFF: Editor, Vicki Roberts; Design/Production, Mysty McPherson; Art Work, Bonnie Sanders; Queries, Mary Birrer; Subscriptions, Barbara Holland; Printing, Rapid Rabbit, Covington United Center, 11015 Deer Street Suite 5, Conway AR 72032; Contributing writers, Janice Mears. HGSMCA OFFICERS: Chair, Vicki A. Roberts; Vice-Chair, Don Duggins; Secretary, Mary Birrer; Treasurer, Barbara Holland; Grants/Purchasing, Mysty McPherson.
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Linda Haas Davenport